International Journal of Human-Computer Studies

Recently, crowd computing has been receiving interest from researchers, scientists, and practitioners as well (Barkuus and Jørgensen, 2008 and Brignull and Rogers, 2003). Crowd computing is a field in which interaction takes place between many people that are physically collocated, sharing a large display, and possessing collaborative or distributed control in public settings (Kaviani et al., 2009, Schieck and O’Neill, 2009 and Sieber et al., 2009).

Crowd computing systems can be seen as a type of locative media. Locative media is digital media applied to real places that mediate interaction in real society (Willis et al., 2009). As a special type of locative media, crowd computing considers the users of the system as a crowd. This means that many, unspecified users are gathered in the same location, possibly with the same purpose. This gathering of a large number of users in the same place and time is what differentiates crowd computing from other locative systems. For example, an arrival information system installed at a city bus stop is an example of locative media but not of crowd computing. Most locative systems are based on the same location, but users do not always have to interact in large numbers. Crowd computing is also different from traditional CSCW systems, where many users collaborate together, but they do not necessarily have to be co-located or collaborate at the same time.

Existing studies on crowd computing and locative media have constructed a well-founded basis for the field by aiming for three common themes: location, community, and context (Willis et al., 2009). Location is about “where the system is” or “what happens at which the system is installed”. Community is about “who uses the system there”. The two themes form together an important superordinate concept known as “context”. There are several studies that propose a contextualized crowd computing system in a certain location which focuses on the community of users. For example, Vajk et al. (2008) developed a multiplayer game application as a form of media which utilized a public display and mobile phones at the venue of a forum on mobile phones. José et al. (2008) developed a system which supported implicit interaction among people, enhancing awareness of each other through automatically detected individual Bluetooth devices in a campus bar. McDonald et al. (2008) suggested three applications that support one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many interactions among attendees of academic conferences. Attendees were able to interact by accessing information about one another based on their location, thereby promoting serendipitous interactions that may not have been able to take place without the use of the applications. Schieck and O’Neill (2009)’s system visualized pedestrians stepping on and looking at the system embedded in a walkway so that users can play on it for fun. These studies reveal the three recurring themes of crowd computing: utilizing locations for the user community in specific contexts.

Based on this foundation of the field, further studies in this area should be strengthened in three ways to expand upon existing contributions, which also relate to the motivations of this study. First, studies need to examine the basic characteristics of their potential users, or the crowd. This allows the system to be designed appropriately according to crowd behavior and can offer deep understanding of a crowd’s motivation so that their behavior can be explained. This study, therefore, starts by examining existing studies on the motivation of crowds. Specifically, this study views crowds from the perspective of optimal distinctiveness theory, which presents a theoretical basis on understanding a crowd’s innate motivation and desire (Brewer, 2003 and Hornsey and Hogg, 1999).

Second, either individual users or small groups of users can be viewed as interaction agents in crowd settings. Numerous prior studies in swam behavior (e.g., Bonabeau et al., 1999) and complexity theory (e.g., Helbing, 2008) investigate the self-organizing and indirect-coordination functions of individuals in a crowd setting. However, relatively little research has been carried out on group interaction, especially in the crowd context. However, the group is where the action takes place in a crowd (Goffman, 1967) and to ignore the group level is to ignore the level of analysis in which meaning and behavior of a crowd are established and solidified (Harrington and Fine, 2000). Therefore, a group may be treated as a single entity with its own characteristics, not just as a simple sum of individuals (Bisker and Casalegno, 2009 and Stott and Reicher, 1998).

Group culture has been pointed out to be an important contextual factor in prior studies on communication (Gudykunst et al., 1988 and Leonard et al., 2009) and is defined as what the members have, the things they do, and what they think in common (Fine, 1979 and Herskovits, 1948). Communication processes, agents, and even contents depend on the cultural context of the group (Leonard et al., 2009). This study focuses on a specific type of group culture known as idioculture as a means for exploring interaction of small groups within a large crowd. This is because idioculture is a unique cultural product of small groups which provides distinct group characteristics (Fine, 1979). Because crowd computing systems involve a large number of people in the same place at the same time, the crowd has an inclusive effect on the small groups that gather together. Therefore, such small groups form a natural desire to distinguish themselves from other groups. Idioculture is utilized as a tool by small groups to obtain certain amounts of distinctiveness within a highly inclusive crowd context. Therefore, based on the influence of idioculture on group communication and distinctiveness, it should be closely examined in crowd computing research.

Third, the common goal of systems from the HCI perspective is to enhance the quality of user experience. User experience is generally defined as “all aspects of how a user uses, understands, and perceives when he or she uses an interactive system” (Law et al., 2008). Depending on the specific characteristics of systems and contexts, diverse factors of user experiences have been investigated (Hassenzahl et al., 2010, Hassenzahl and Tractinsky, 2006, Law and Schaik, 2010 and O’Brien, 2010). However, it is not yet known which aspects of user experience is important in crowd computing systems. Therefore, this study seeks to identify user experience elements specific to a crowd computing system in order to investigate the impact of idioculture on user experience.


Fonte

La astrología no cumple el criterio de demarcación

Quizás pueda ejemplificar lo anterior con ayuda de las diversas teorías mencionadas hasta ahora. La teoría de la gravitación de Einstein obviamente satisface el criterio de la refutabilidad. Aunque los instrumentos de medición de aquel entonces no nos permitían pronunciarnos sobre los resultados de los tests con completa seguridad, había – indudablemente – una posibilidad de refutar la teoría.
La astrología no pasa la prueba. Impresionó y engañó mucho a los astrólogos lo que ellos consideraban elementos de juicio confirmatorios, hasta el punto de que pasaron totalmente por alto toda prueba en contra. Además, al dar a sus interpretaciones y profecías un tono suficientemente vago, lograron disipar todo lo que habría sido una refutación de la teoría, si ésta y las profecías hubieran sido más precisas. Para escapar a la refutación, destruyeron la testabilidad de su teoría. Es una típica treta de adivino predecir cosas de manera tan vaga que difícilmente fracasen las predicciones: se hacen irrefutables. Karl Popper

—–

Cuando eres reconocido como autoridad, entonces tu autoridad es defendida por tus colegas, y naturalmente tú debes defender la autoridad de tus colegas. La vieja ética que describo prohíbe cometer errores. En modo alguno es permitido un error. De ahí que no se puedan cometer errores. No necesito resaltar que esta vieja ética profesional es intolerante. Y era también siempre intelectualmente desleal: conduce al encubrimiento del error en favor de la autoridad… Karl Popper

19j construción social da realidade

Dende a marcha dos mineros continuada por funcionarios ata o día de hoxe #19j as conciencias veñen recorrendo e redefinindo amplios territorios cognitivos ó largo e ancho deste país. A sociedade dividida (funcionarios, policía, comunistas, republicanos, militares, xubilados, parados, autónomos… e mil conceptos parciales máis do humano) atopa motivos para solidarizarse nunha acción conxunta e maniféstase esta tarde ás 20:00 por todo o país.
Peléase a construcción social da realidade, as alianzas dos individuos dilúen e transcenden as fronteiras das institucións e as estruturas tradicionais (partidos, sindicatos, institucións e organismos públicos, grupos sociais…). Os funcionarios de hacienda presenta medidas alternativas ante os recortes, a policía trata de reducir a acción dos antidisturbios, os cidadáns impiden deshaucios, os representantes autonómicos invitan a ofrecer resistencia ante os recortes, e apélase ó dereito a desobedecer. O sistema económico é un flan e aquí empezan a incrementarse os decibelios.

Os medios de comunicación que calaron ó principio da marcha negra, van cambiando de tono e por fín os sindicatos convocan conxuntamente unha manifestación. Os que calaron ó principio parecen ter escollido bando e van sendo icluídos sen demasiada resistencia.Leremos os acontecementos deste serán.
O poder somos todos e a burbulla mental parece próxima a reventar, por iso o discurso cambia de dirección e de sentido. Un gran bloque de xeo despréndese en Groenlandia.

E niso si ten culpa a Administración

Participante3: Entón o mellor podes acceder a elas 2 horas á semana. Nun centro normal, noutros supoño que estarán moito mellor ¿non?. Pero ben,e despois hai outra cousa da que non se falou nada. Que é da administración, e dos plans de estudo e das reformas. Que todo isto queda fóra. Ese é o principal problema que ti aínda que queiras meter os contidos, os contidos mételos sen nengún apoio. Ou sexa, tes que ter moito coidado con esas cousas, que é o que metes, como o metes… Se despois che chegan os pais e din: “No e que o meu rapaz ven e o único que fai o profesor é metelo en páxinas web, mirar uns documentais, que lles fan moita gracia pero non aprenden nada”. Entón dis ti a pois daquí pa diante o que vou facer é collo o libro, lémolo libro, facémolas actividades do libro e acabóuse. Que ese é un problema grande, que non se están metendo… Realmente hai ferramentas que, telas, pódelas buscar e son accesibles. Pero despois o primeiro é iso, que non tes os equipos, e outra, non tes nada administrativamente que te respalde. A túa boa vontade, e a boa vontade que poida ter algún outro profesor que te respalde e entón…

Moderador: Ben pero ahí… perdón, tamén está a figura do coordinador ¿non?. Nas aulas…

Participante5: Pero o coordinador…

Participante1, Participante4: (Risas)

Participante3: Explica o tempo que lle podes dedicar…

Participante5: O coordinador tense que dedicar a dinamizar, en todo un centro as tecnoloxías, as novas tecnoloxías e máis adicarse ó mantemento, básico, de tódolos equipos. O meu centro, CPI, bueno, temos infantil, primaria e secundaria… E -xa vos comentei no café- 73 equipos, ademáis de pizarras dixitais, ademáis de cañóns, ademáis de 3 edificios e eu solo para iso. E claro, hai a posibilidade de contratar mantemento externo, pero o presuposto non é o máis alto do mundo… e eu polo menos prefiro comprar un equipo ou 3, 4 equipos ó longo do ano e non gastar no mantemento, sufrilo eu. Esto significa que todo vai depender da vontade dun coordinador. É dicir se ti tes a vontade de pasarte a tarde ou parte de xulio intentando preparar os equipos para o curso seguinte pois pásalo. Pero se non queres… ó final os equipos pois empeza a fallar o hardware, a fallar o software ou empeza a desaparecer partes dos equipos nalgúns casos. Un coordinador, ten moito traballo. E o problema para min é que depende todo da vontade. E niso si ten culpa a Administración

as ideas guían o comportamento

Hai numerosas probas de que a información cultural atesourada no cerebro contén instrucións contradictorias. Por exemplo, nun estudio sobre com conciben os norteamoeriacanos a familia, Janet Keller (1992:61-61) recolleu estes <esquemas> contrapostos:

Os membros da familia debería esforzarse no ben de todo o grupo
pero
o ben do individuo debe anteporse ó ben de todo o grupo

A familia é permanente
pero
a familia está en continua transición

A familia é un refuxio
pero
a familia é un lugar onde preparar e ensaiar os papeis que se representarán en público

A familia é nutricia
pero
a familia é axfixiante

A familia é divisoria, un crisol de tensións e dominacións
pero
a familia é un remanso de axuda e calor mútuos.

Outro problema do postulado <as ideas guían o comportamento> radica na conducta contradictoria que se observa cando grandes cantidades de xente tratan á vez de cumplir determinadas normas.

Harris, M. (2000) Teorías sobre la cultura en la era postmoderna. Barcelona. Crítica. Pax. 21-22