Inclusión educativa y segregación espacial

…cuando sectores de menores recursos se encuentran rodeados contiguamente de sectores en la misma posición se restringen sus posibilidad es de integración en la sociedad.
La relevancia de los procesos de segregación espacial se encuentra en el hecho de que los sectores que menos tienen, se vuelven aún más vulnerables, observándose diferencias importantes en términos de inclusión educativa entre contextos en los cuales la exclusión social se combina con una mayor segregación espacial, respecto de aquellos contextos en los cuáles, aún en situación de carencia, se encuentran menos segregados espacialmente.

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies

Recently, crowd computing has been receiving interest from researchers, scientists, and practitioners as well (Barkuus and Jørgensen, 2008 and Brignull and Rogers, 2003). Crowd computing is a field in which interaction takes place between many people that are physically collocated, sharing a large display, and possessing collaborative or distributed control in public settings (Kaviani et al., 2009, Schieck and O’Neill, 2009 and Sieber et al., 2009).

Crowd computing systems can be seen as a type of locative media. Locative media is digital media applied to real places that mediate interaction in real society (Willis et al., 2009). As a special type of locative media, crowd computing considers the users of the system as a crowd. This means that many, unspecified users are gathered in the same location, possibly with the same purpose. This gathering of a large number of users in the same place and time is what differentiates crowd computing from other locative systems. For example, an arrival information system installed at a city bus stop is an example of locative media but not of crowd computing. Most locative systems are based on the same location, but users do not always have to interact in large numbers. Crowd computing is also different from traditional CSCW systems, where many users collaborate together, but they do not necessarily have to be co-located or collaborate at the same time.

Existing studies on crowd computing and locative media have constructed a well-founded basis for the field by aiming for three common themes: location, community, and context (Willis et al., 2009). Location is about “where the system is” or “what happens at which the system is installed”. Community is about “who uses the system there”. The two themes form together an important superordinate concept known as “context”. There are several studies that propose a contextualized crowd computing system in a certain location which focuses on the community of users. For example, Vajk et al. (2008) developed a multiplayer game application as a form of media which utilized a public display and mobile phones at the venue of a forum on mobile phones. José et al. (2008) developed a system which supported implicit interaction among people, enhancing awareness of each other through automatically detected individual Bluetooth devices in a campus bar. McDonald et al. (2008) suggested three applications that support one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many interactions among attendees of academic conferences. Attendees were able to interact by accessing information about one another based on their location, thereby promoting serendipitous interactions that may not have been able to take place without the use of the applications. Schieck and O’Neill (2009)’s system visualized pedestrians stepping on and looking at the system embedded in a walkway so that users can play on it for fun. These studies reveal the three recurring themes of crowd computing: utilizing locations for the user community in specific contexts.

Based on this foundation of the field, further studies in this area should be strengthened in three ways to expand upon existing contributions, which also relate to the motivations of this study. First, studies need to examine the basic characteristics of their potential users, or the crowd. This allows the system to be designed appropriately according to crowd behavior and can offer deep understanding of a crowd’s motivation so that their behavior can be explained. This study, therefore, starts by examining existing studies on the motivation of crowds. Specifically, this study views crowds from the perspective of optimal distinctiveness theory, which presents a theoretical basis on understanding a crowd’s innate motivation and desire (Brewer, 2003 and Hornsey and Hogg, 1999).

Second, either individual users or small groups of users can be viewed as interaction agents in crowd settings. Numerous prior studies in swam behavior (e.g., Bonabeau et al., 1999) and complexity theory (e.g., Helbing, 2008) investigate the self-organizing and indirect-coordination functions of individuals in a crowd setting. However, relatively little research has been carried out on group interaction, especially in the crowd context. However, the group is where the action takes place in a crowd (Goffman, 1967) and to ignore the group level is to ignore the level of analysis in which meaning and behavior of a crowd are established and solidified (Harrington and Fine, 2000). Therefore, a group may be treated as a single entity with its own characteristics, not just as a simple sum of individuals (Bisker and Casalegno, 2009 and Stott and Reicher, 1998).

Group culture has been pointed out to be an important contextual factor in prior studies on communication (Gudykunst et al., 1988 and Leonard et al., 2009) and is defined as what the members have, the things they do, and what they think in common (Fine, 1979 and Herskovits, 1948). Communication processes, agents, and even contents depend on the cultural context of the group (Leonard et al., 2009). This study focuses on a specific type of group culture known as idioculture as a means for exploring interaction of small groups within a large crowd. This is because idioculture is a unique cultural product of small groups which provides distinct group characteristics (Fine, 1979). Because crowd computing systems involve a large number of people in the same place at the same time, the crowd has an inclusive effect on the small groups that gather together. Therefore, such small groups form a natural desire to distinguish themselves from other groups. Idioculture is utilized as a tool by small groups to obtain certain amounts of distinctiveness within a highly inclusive crowd context. Therefore, based on the influence of idioculture on group communication and distinctiveness, it should be closely examined in crowd computing research.

Third, the common goal of systems from the HCI perspective is to enhance the quality of user experience. User experience is generally defined as “all aspects of how a user uses, understands, and perceives when he or she uses an interactive system” (Law et al., 2008). Depending on the specific characteristics of systems and contexts, diverse factors of user experiences have been investigated (Hassenzahl et al., 2010, Hassenzahl and Tractinsky, 2006, Law and Schaik, 2010 and O’Brien, 2010). However, it is not yet known which aspects of user experience is important in crowd computing systems. Therefore, this study seeks to identify user experience elements specific to a crowd computing system in order to investigate the impact of idioculture on user experience.


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¿Porqué amo as redes sociais? Vida social dos xóvenes en rede

As redes sociais constitúen un espacio de encontros e singularidades para boa parte da xuventude española. A súa chegada está xenerando un gran debate, máis ou menos enfocado, sobre limitacións, potencialidades, sinerxias ou problemáticas. Ante a profusión de elementos para o debate “dende arriba” (ou se cadra máis ben “dende fóra”), a nosa aportación procurou adentrarse na concepción que os xóvvenes participantes teñen sobre as redes e a súa acción e desenvolvemento nas mesmas. O fundamento indagador foi o máximo respeto no procedemento, posibilitando unha toma de decisións compartida no proceso evolutivo e evitando no posible sesgos distractores.

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Máis comunicación, mellor información

Me gustaría dar un ejemplo práctico. Días atrás una de mis hijas miraba por Canal 7 la señal Encuentro que transmitía, a las siete de la tarde, un documental biográfico sobre el científico británico Michael Faraday, mientras rasgaba la guitarra en un sillón y estudiaba lo que supongo que eran unas notas en un pentagrama. Lo interesante fue comprobar que a esa misma hora Telefé ofrecía Telefé noticias, Canal 13 Duro de Domar, el 2, América Noticias y Canal 9 Telenueve, más lo que seguramente eran las infinitas opciones de la televisión por cable para quienes lo tienen. No sé cuánto tiempo sostuvo la atención sobre la biografía de Faraday o si se la pasó haciendo zapping. Lo que me interesó fue comprobar que, con las opciones, mi hija se educaba como televidente a partir de poder comparar y juzgar lo que quería ver. Sin alternativas condenamos a las generaciones futuras al pensamiento único.

Es para esto que necesitamos una nueva ley de radiodifusión. Para que el Estado garantice más comunicación y mejor información, que promueva una pluralidad de voces e intereses, que respete la libertad de expresión de todos. Una ley que incorpore instituciones como el defensor del lector o los observatorios de medios para darles a los consumidores instancias que protejan sus derechos, que impulse un verdadero federalismo cultural en la circulación de los bienes simbólicos, que acentúe la educación de lectores, oyentes, televidentes e internautas desde la primera infancia, que articule las instancias que promueven las últimas tecnologías a los usos democratizadores de la sociedad civil, que defienda la diversidad cultural, la innovación y nuestras industrias culturales, que desarrolle un sistema federal de medios públicos no gubernamentales. En fin, se trata de la construcción de una ciudadanía más completa. Que la sociedad que formamos, en el doble sentido, que nos forma y que colaboramos en formar, nos brinde y desarrolle nuestras capacidades de elegir y construir nuestro propio mensaje en la interacción con los mensajes de los otros. Sanguinetti

Complexidade cognitiva

In a situation where a student might have an argument with a teacher about a grade he or she received, an example of a statement that might use expressive design logic would sound like this: “You are so unfair. You are always out to get me!”

An example of a statement using conventional design logic might sound like this:

“I worked hard on this project. Your expectations of me are higher than anyone else in this class because I am the only one who is a major.”

An example of a statement that uses rhetorical design logic might sound like this:

“I would like to sit down with you and go over the grading of my project. I believe that if I have the chance to explain a bit more about what I did, you might be able to re-evaluate my grade. Additionally, I am unclear about some of the comment you made. I hope that through discussing it, I might get a better idea about exactly what it is that you expected to be done for this assignment.”

Pola outra banda está, non esquezamos a complexidade cognitiva e relacional do interlocutor, que pode afectar á capacidade expresiva tanto ou máis. E:

Socializing a new generation of sophisticated speakers.

A. Constructivist researchers show that cognitive complexity is transmitted culturally
from parent to child.
B. Because sophisticated messages are more often the product of parents from
advantaged socioeconomic backgrounds, advantage is self-perpetuating.